Russian grammar

Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 3.

Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 3.

The third part of the pictures for easy learning Russian grammar in fun way.

<<--Part 2.


 

Деепричастия Verbal Adverb (Gerund)

Picture. Деепричастия Verbal Adverb (Gerund)

 

Глаголы движения Verbs of motion RUN

Picture. Глаголы движения Verbs of motion RUN

 

Verbs of motion with prefixes

Picture. Verbs of motion with prefixes

 

Verbs of motion other meanings

Picture. Verbs of motion other meanings

 

Глаголы движения в переносном значении Verbs of motion: other meanings

Picture. Глаголы движения в переносном значении Verbs of motion: other meanings

 

Always plural Russian nouns

Picture. Always plural Russian nouns

 

Когда When

Picture. Когда When

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Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 2.

Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 2.

The second part of the pictures for easy learning Russian grammar in fun way.

<<--Part 1.


 

 

Russian imperative: request, advice, command

Russian reflective verbs

Себя, свой

Short forms of adjectives

Subject numerals nouns verb

Вид глагола The Verb Aspect Modals+Infinitive

Part 3. -->>

 

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Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 1.

Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 1.

Regularly updated article for new pictures about Russian grammar. Many useful pictures for easy understanding Russian grammar.


 

Adjectives full form vs short form

Adjectives - Прилагательные Simple Comparative Простая сравнительная степень

Adverb - Наречие +

Irregular Verbs Aspects Formation

Nouns, Prepositional case, Masculine

Prepositions, Предлоги: ЗА + ...

 

Russian Grammar in Pictures. Part 2.->>>

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Expand Your Vocabulary: Russian Verbs With Prefixes – Играть

Expand Your Vocabulary: Russian Verbs With Prefixes – Играть

We will cover derivatives of the verb игра́ть, to play. This is a versatile and useful verb to have in your arsenal.

The primary meaning of играть is, as you probably know “to play.” This can refer to:

  • sports: играть в футбо́л (football/(US) soccer)
  • music: играть на трубе́ (trumpet)
  • board/party/children’s games: играть в домино́, играть в пря́тки, играть в кла́ссики (dominoes, hide and seek, hopscotch)
  • gambling: играть в аза́ртные и́гры, в лото́, в руле́тку, в ка́рты (to gamble; play the lottery, roulette, cards)

 

Some of the most widely-used derivatives include игру́шка (toy), игра́ (game), and игро́к (mostly gambler, although can mean player; think of Dostoyevsky’s novel). A popular figurative use of играть is in the idiom играть роль (to play a role in something).

 

Внутригосуда́рственное законода́тельство игра́ет суще́ственную роль в формирова́нии норм междунаро́дного ба́нковского пра́ва. (National law plays a significant role in forming international banking law.) [Нормы международного банковского права (2003) // «Адвокат», 2003.09.01]

 

The perfective forms of играть are very versatile depending on what completed action is meant.

 

сыгра́ть – to play once, for a limited amount of time

В 1/8 фина́ла аргенти́нцы сыгра́ют про́тив сбо́рной Ме́ксики. (Argentina will play against Mexico in 1/8 finals.) [Дина Беляева. Ренессанс Марадоны (2010.06.23) // http://www.rbcdaily.ru/2010/06/23/lifestyle/488845.shtml, 2010]

 

заигра́ть – to start playing

Дириже́р махну́л па́лочкой, и музыка́нты заигра́ли увертю́ру. (The conductor waved his baton, and the musicians started an overture.) [Вальтер Запашный. Риск. Борьба. Любовь (1998-2004)]

 

доигра́ть – to finish playing to the end

Как добросо́вестный актёр, я доигра́л свою́ роль, не приба́вив, не уба́вив ни одного́ сло́ва из того́, что мне бы́ло предпи́сано ав́тором пье́сы. (A methodical actor, I played my part without omitting or adding one word of what was assigned to me by the playwright.) [А. Н. Апухтин. Между жизнью и смертью (1892)]

 

поигра́ть – to play for a time

Он воро́чался с бо́ку на бок и раз пять встава́л с посте́ли, что́бы поигра́ть на скри́пке. (He kept turning from side to side and got up about five times to play his violin.) [А. П. Чехов. Скрипка Ротшильда (1894)]

 

Note that доигра́ться is a way to criticize someone by saying they were pushing their luck and got burned.

И одна́жды доигра́лись мои́ ребя́та, что их пья́ных задержа́л на у́лице команди́р брига́ды, полко́вник. (One day my guys went too far and were detained drunk on the street by the brigade commander, a colonel.) [Э.Г. Казакевич. При свете дня (1960)]

There are also several verbs derived from играть whose meaning is not immediately obvious.

 

вы́играть – to win (a sporting event, a prize, the lottery, a trial, a battle)

Поколе́ние Ко́лфилда не име́ет тех идеа́лов, кото́рые бы́ли у предыду́щего, вы́игравшего Втору́ю мирову́ю войну́. (Caulfield’s generation does not share the ideals cherished by the previous generation, which had won the Second World War.) [Константин Мильчин. Десять заповедей Холдена Колфилда. По каким законам мы живем с 1951 года // «Русский репортер», q№ 4 (132), 4-11 февраля 2010, 2010]
Я суди́лся с ме́стным кримина́льным авторите́том―в э́то никто́ не пове́рит, но вы́играл. (I took a local criminal boss to court — no one will believe me, but I won the case.) [Новая тема, которую никто пока не трогает (форум) (2008)]

 

проигра́ть – to lose in a game or in a battle (“to be unable to find something” is потеря́ть); to lose something gambling
Есть станда́ртная процеду́ра рассмотре́ния таки́х дел. Е́сли проигра́етесуде́бные изде́ржки на вас. (There is a standard procedure for hearing these cases. If you lose, you have to cover court expenses.) [коллективный. Почему в России бардак на дорогах (2011)]

 

These are just some of the most common senses of these играть derivatives. I encourage you to search dictionaries or the Internet for further examples of their usage.

 

Useful Related Video: Russian motion verbs with prefixes - глаголы движения с приставками

 

 

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Russian Verbs: Победить, Очутиться, Дерзить

Russian Verbs: Победить, Очутиться, Дерзить

Quite naturally, most of the time, we talk about what can be said in Russian on this blog.  However, surprisingly, there are also things you cannot say. Here are a few missing verb forms and ways to work around them, where possible.

 

Победить

Ask any Russian what you cannot say in Russian, and, chances are, they will mention победить (to win) among their top five answers. Победить is followed by the accusative case of the person/thing defeated and/or by в + the prepositional case for the battle/contest you won: победить врага в сражении (to defeat the enemy in a battle). Note that “to win” for prizes and the like is выиграть.

Победить is a perfective verb, so it only has past and future forms. Its imperfective counterpart is побеждать.Победить has all the expected forms in the past — победила, победил, победили, победило, but in the future tense, it is missing the first person singular. So you can say, “Я уверен, что мы победим” (“I’m sure we will win”), but not “…я победю/побежу.” To express the same idea, use the phrase “одержать победу.”

 

Надеюсь, одержу победу и в драмтеатре Екатеринбурга обязательно поставим этот спектакль (I hope I win and we will be sure to stage this play in the Yekaterinburg Drama Theatre). [Бирюков Сергей. ШАНДЫБИН МЕНЯЕТ СЦЕНУ // Труд-7, 2004.01.14]

 

Очутиться

The next verb I’d like to cover is очутиться, meaning “to find yourself (somewhere).” This is also a perfective verb and does not have an imperfective counterpart. You can use оказываться (imp.) instead.

 

Again, this verb has all four past forms: очутилась, очутился, очутилось, очутились. For instance, Mikhail Lozinsky’s translation of Dante’s Inferno has this word in the opening lines: “Земную жизнь пройдя до половины,//Я очутился в сумрачном лесу” (“Midway upon the journey of our life//I found myself within a forest dark” in Henry Longfellow’s translation).

 

This verb, too, lacks the first person singular, so you can say они очутятся or мы очутимся, but not я очутюсь/очущусь. If you need to convey the same idea, use окажусь. Note that оказаться has the added meaning of “to turn out to be a certain way” that очутиться does not. The example below shows the shared meaning of the two words.

Я никак не ожидал, что окажусь в таком роскошном отеле (I never expected to find myself in such a luxurious hotel). [Валентин Бережков. Рядом со Сталиным (1971-1998)]

 

Дерзить

The examples above do not have the “I” form. Some verbs could theoretically have that form, but because of homonymy with other verbs, it is not used in practice. Дерзить is one of these verbs.

It means “to be fresh/disrespectful, to talk back.” You may recognize the related word дерзкий, daring.

Дерзить is imperective, so it has past, present, and future forms — for example, она дерзила, дерзит, будет дерзить. This time, its present first person singular form is not used. It would normally be держу (compare “to slide”:скользить–скольжу), but that sounds like a form of держать, to hold.

You could probably use something like грублю (“am being rude”) to replace the missing form.

― Ты не груби старшим. ― Я не грублю. Это у меня такой голос. (“Don’t be rude to your elders.” “I’m not. That’s my voice is all.” [Валерий Медведев. Баранкин, будь человеком! (1957)]

There are several more missing verb — and noun — forms. Would you like to cover some more on this blog?

 

 
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Russian cases (visual sheets)

Russian cases (visual sheets)

Useful sheets to make Russian cases more visual.

Russian nominative case

 

 

 Russian genitive case Russian dative case Russian accusative case Russian instrumental case Russian prepositional case

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Russian Perfective Verbs

Russian Perfective Verbs

Russian Perfective Verbs refer to those actions which are complete, or one-off in nature. For example - "I wrote a letter (to completion)" is a perfective action, while "I was writing a letter" is an imperfective action, as it does not denote completing the action.

This page lists the most important Perfective Verbs. The table outlines phonetics, as well as the conjugation pattern required (this is indicated by the number 1 or 2). Remember that perfective verbs cannot be used in the present tense.

 

russian-perfective-verbs-A-B-C russian-perfective-verbs-C-D-E-F russian-perfective-verbs-F-G-H-I-J-K-L russian-perfective-verbs-L-M-N-O-P russian-perfective-verbs-P-R-S russian-perfective-verbs-S-T-U-V-W

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How to use из-за, от and благодаря

How to use из-за, от and благодаря

How to use из-за, от and благодаря: Someone once said that prepositions are small words that give big headaches. And that is probably especially true of из-за, от and благодаря. But once you understand how they differ in usage, choosing the right preposition is much easier.

 

bitsize picture How to use из-за, от and благодаря

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Как насчёт (how about something or someone)

Как насчёт (how about something or someone)

Как насчёт (how about something or someone) is a very functional phrase that can be used either as a question, a suggestion or an offer. As shown in the examples, it takes the genitive case.

 

picrure russian grammar как насчет

 

 

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Russian Idiom: Войти в историю

Russian Idiom: Войти в историю

Учимся понимать разговорную речь! Let's look at a very simple phrase which is commonly used: войти в историю. This phrase means to "go into history" or "enter into history". It can be applied to either an event or a personage.

picrute Russian Idiom: Войти в историю

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